In early spring very few plants are not afraid of freezing. Acad. Pallas, survey at the end of the XVIII century. flora of Russia, met with such a plant, surprised by his stamina and give him the title of "hellebore." Its flowering time is usually coincides with a few more frosts. Different types of hellebore, or Zimovniki use in ornamental horticulture because of its ability to bloom earlier than other plants. The scientific genus name – Helleborus occurs already at Pliny. Frost belongs to the family Ranunculaceae – Ranunculaceae.
Some types of hellebore have long attracted attention as medicinal plants in folk medicine used as a heart and diuretics. In scientific medicine in Germany in the last century was used hellebore black (H. niger L.). In Russia, prof. NY Chistovich studied green hellebore (H.
viridis L.), and found that it acts on the heart like digitalis. But for a long time not hellebore found its application. Only in the XX century. In the late 40s, they are again interested in and began to study the red hellebore – H. purpurascens Wald. et Kit. hellebore and the Caucasus – N. caucasictis A. Br. Both species are small perennial Plants with thick, short rhizome kosorastuschim, which runs numerous roots. The aerial portion consists of 2-4 large thick and leathery basal leaves, dark green, on long stalks, and low flower arrows, carrying 1.4 flower. The flower has an unusual structure: the sepals among 5 venchikovidnye, large and painted, and the petals in the number of 5 – 12 turned into a tubular nectaries in the top stretched lip zavorochennuyu inside, stamens many, pistils 3-10. Fruit – the team with the remaining columns leaflet. Frost has reddish leaves palmately lobed to 5-7 parts, each of which again is deeply cut into 2-3 share of second order. Flowers outside a dirty-violet with darker veins, and within the greenish-purple. Blooms in April – May. It occurs in deciduous forests of western Ukraine in the Carpathians. Leaves dissected into hellebore Caucasian, 5 – 11 lanceolate lobes with serrate-toothed edge lobes entire, at least 1-2 percentage re-dissected. The flowers are colored differently: they are carmine-red, pale green or greenish-yellow-brown. It grows in deciduous and coniferous mountain forests along the rivers and fringes of the West Caucasus. A leading source for info: Robert Iger . Hellebore blooms Caucasian, justifying its name, from December to March and on the northern slopes of the Caucasus – from April to May. Frost reddish, occurring in the Ukraine and Moldova, as well as Caucasian hellebore plants are rare (rarity score 3). Previously harvested rhizome with the roots, digging it after shedding seed, cleaned and dried from the earth. Raw poisonous, drying should be careful. The roots of hellebore reddish and Caucasian contain glycosides of the heart (the steroid structure) in the aerial parts of them less. Glycosides obtained in the crystalline and accordingly named as korelborin K (N. caucasictis) and korelborin P (A purpurascens). Pharmacological studies have established that both glycosides on the nature and speed of action similar to the strofantinom, and on cumulative properties close to digitalis. Frost as a poisonous plant is usually not eaten by cattle or in the pasture or in hay, and so poisoning of farm animals are very rare. – lkarsk Roslyn Ukraine