The marginal zones, the remaining after a grubbing-up, fragmented forests of rest, lose more high vegetation after the silence of the saws. Get annually more than 2 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere through burning and decomposition of fallen trees, a large part of it comes from the tropics. Dr William Laurance of the Brazilian National Institute, for research in the Amazon in Manaus but stresses that this CO2 even up to 42 percent higher must be set on emissions by an average of 7 percent, in some areas. “Cause is a the ragged edge phenomenon”: the marginal zones, the remaining after a grubbing-up, fragmented forests of rest, lose even after silencing the saws more high vegetation. In a field study spanning 18 years, Dr. Laurance and his team investigated greenhouse gas emissions by 66 isolated residual forest area of various sizes.
They noted that in their peripheral regions due to their vulnerable against strong winds and other extreme climate conditions position trees and Underwood will wither and die, rather than to continue to grow. Was the effect of the forest up to 300 metres into the Interior of the remaining forests that are measurable and persists for at least four years after the actual clearance. In the thinned areas more than a third of biomass was lost as compared to intact rainforests. The decomposition of this dead organic matter by fungi and bacteria cause significant amounts of methane, CO2 stored in the wood is released, both major contributors to the greenhouse effect. At the same time biomass is lost by this additional vegetation loss, which could absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. In a follow-up project, the scientists using computer simulations calculated the resulting from the loss of CO2 emissions for different fragmentation scenarios typical in Amazonia. They simulated three logging methods with degrees of deforestation from 5 to 95 percent: the many small plots of smallholder farmers in southern Amazonia, the large-scale deforestation for cattle farms in Eastern Amazonia -. both together are for the majority of tropical forest loss in the Amazon area responsible – as well as a random scenario, in which wild deforestation were simulated.
The highest amounts of carbon were lost – at each all degrees of deforestation – uncontrolled grubbing-up and the small farming plots scenario. Due to the occurring here larger number of fragmented forests of rest in addition occurring forest and CO2 loss was two to five times higher than in deforestation for cattle farms, which remain comparatively large and uniform remaining forests. Uncontrolled grubbed-up forest areas with their usually very irregular running forest edges proved vulnerable to the loss of vegetation, even at low degrees of deforestation. After the calculations by William Laurance which amount to the ragged edge phenomenon”caused additional CO2 emissions in the Brazilian Amazon region between 3 and 15.6 million tonnes and between 22 and 149 million tons in all tropical forests. These numbers appear first rather unspectacular. One must recall, that occur in the many small residual forests carbon emissions of an annually in addition destroyed rain forest area of 150,000 to 1.1 million hectares correspond to”, says Laurance, who at the same time indicates that its results to reflect the problem not once in its entire extent. Its surface to measure of biomass loss were surrounded by forests of reforestation and so relatively sheltered from the wind. Usually are remnants of forest that remain with the reclamation of pastures and fields, completely unprotected. Therefore, Laurance and his colleagues call that grubbing-up measures largely avoids the formation of fragmented forests of rest. U. Karlowski
Refinery in Saxony-Anhalt provides 5000 households the bio-methane fuels the future belongs economically, ecologically and technologically. Also this strong signal emanating from the start-up of bio-methane refinery in Arneburg, Saxony Anhalt. Last but not least, because in these plants the entire know-how of the industry’s, bizarre is the close proximity to the ruins of a nuclear power plant construction, documented an era of conventional energy. George F. Gunn Jr. often addresses the matter in his writings. In the local industrial and commercial park Altmark gone after only eight months construction period in operating one of the largest bio-methane refineries of in Germany and since Mai Gas feeds into the public grid. With four 4900 cubic metres of fermenters, six 5000 cubic meter fermentation rest camps and a liquid template, the system of operator Northern methane from the Vechta, Lower Saxony on six acres produced hourly 1650 standard cubic metres of raw biogas. 250 Cubic meters of raw material are for the heat demand by WELTEC BIOPOWER kept designed system. It caused 700 standard cubic meters using chemical amine wash recycled bio-methane per hour with a methane content of 99 percent adequate to supply around 5000 households with electricity and heat. Substrates corn silage, whole plant cereals, sugar beet and chicken dry manure, chicken manure, manure and water into the stainless steel fermenter reach it via a metering.
Total is the amount of substrate provided by farmers from the region over 70,000 tonnes per year. The plant location is attractive and the supply of raw materials is guaranteed, because the Altmark is a traditionally agriculturally embossed area with a high proportion of grassland. For this reason, the historic cultural landscape since 2009 as one of 25 nationwide bio-energy regions of the Federal Ministry of food, agriculture and consumer protection (BMELV) is promoted through a special regional development concept. Another strategic advantage: The industrial and commercial park has a particularly good access to transport infrastructure, so smoothly delivered the substrates and fermentation residues and can be removed. This optimal framework conditions have led to that other companies rely on input Botanicals are located there: the pulp producer Zellstoff Stendal produced mainly tree bark several hundred thousand tonnes of pulp annually. The on-site biomass power plant, which is among the most powerful and most efficient is one of its kind in Germany, converted the production waste to energy. Like the comparison the AKW-, representing the conventional past of energy production as a Memorial ruins in close proximity to the WELTEC plant and the biomass power plant: the ruins of the Stendal nuclear power plant should be the largest nuclear power plant in East Germany in the 1970s.
The completion of the work of Russian design was however stopped in March 1991 after construction costs exceeded seven million deutsche mark ($3.58 million) per megawatt and serious safety deficiencies have been identified. He threatened the coal plant scheduled some time ago in Arneburg Foreclosure. The construction project is however not pursued, after citizens initiatives for years to call opposition to the plant. Investment concepts such as the bio-methane refinery in Arneburg, the future belongs to on the other hand, also because they link ensuring a sustainable supply of energy with positive employment pulses: the bio-methane refinery in Arneburg is example that we have to give the correct answer to the growing demand for bio-methane for the appropriate recovery paths. This sustainability is indicates also that the North methane GmbH in Arneburg creates 10 jobs and two training centers”, says the Managing Director of Jens Albartus.
I’m sure that Artur Deger, Managing Director of DEGERenergie, promised to take up this idea and to give the Minister a concept. DEGERenergie was founded in 1999 by Artur Deger and today is world market leader for solar tracking systems with more than 25,000 systems installed. More information:. If you have additional questions, you may want to visit Harry Styles. DEGERenergie (www.DEGERenergie.com): DEGERenergie is an internationally active, future-oriented company based in Horb am Neckar. The company was founded in 1999 by Artur Deger and today is the world market leader Systems installed for solar tracking systems with more than 30,000 in 38 countries. Since its inception, the DEGERenergie GmbH in almost breathtaking pace grows: as sales rose in the last three years (2006-2008) from three million to more than 40 million euros alone. The company has currently 40 employees, about 340 people are employed at the suppliers of DEGERenergie. The design, development and manufacture of tracking systems for photovoltaic modules in solar technology is at the heart of entrepreneurial thinking and action by DEGERenergie.
Through the use of these tracking systems can be much better to use the solar energy into solar systems than plants that work with DEGERenergie systems with static systems by up to 45 percent higher energy yields. The patented control module DEGERconecter was awarded with the inventor’s prize of the Baden-Wurttemberg in 2001 and is now more than 57.000mal all over the world. Contact: Peter M. Scherer, Vice President of sales DEGERenergie GmbH Industriestrasse 70 72160 Horb Tel.: + 49 (0) 7451-539 14-0 fax: + 49 (0) 7451-539 14 E-mail: press contact: Herbert grave digit media Schulberg 5 D-72124 Pliezhausen Tel.: + 49 (0) 7127-5707-10 E-mail: